Cost Of Nursing Degree
COST OF NURSING DEGREE. COLLEGE BUSINESS DEGREE. FORENSIC SCIENCE DEGREE.
Cost Of Nursing Degree
- The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school.
- (of an object or an action) Require the payment of (a specified sum of money) before it can be acquired or done
- Involve (someone) in (an effort or unpleasant action)
- Cause the loss of
- be priced at; “These shoes cost $100”
- the total spent for goods or services including money and time and labor
- monetary value: the property of having material worth (often indicated by the amount of money something would bring if sold); “the fluctuating monetary value of gold and silver”; “he puts a high price on his services”; “he couldn’t calculate the cost of the collection”
cost of nursing degree – Getting Into
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Caring for Patients: A Critique of the Medical Model
“A legacy of Barbour’s 40-year career in teaching, scholarship, and patient care, Caring for Patients is an excellent read. The writing is crisp and lucid. . . . A gem of a book.”—New England Journal of Medicine
“A book to be read cover to cover by health care providers of all types, in training as well as midway through their careers. Were he alive today, Osler would be pleased to write the preface.”—Annals of Internal Medicine
"Caring For Patients" by Stanford physician Allen Barbour is an important medical book which addresses issues critical to routine medical practice. An uncommon treatise like this could shape the future of one’s medical practice as well as the economics of medical care.
Barbour points out that experienced physicians have been trained to diagnose and treat organic disease although most patients seen in any given medical practice have illness caused by personal distress; many patients who come for help are not well accommodated by the biomedical system of diagnosis and treatment. Many diagnoses are deferred indefinitely, and evaluations are commonly extended and futile. A major component of the soaring costs of modern medical care, "high-tech" diagnostic procedures are often ordered when seeking a disease-based explanation for what are really unrecognized functional disorders. In the organ-based specialties, physicians rule out conditions instead of ruling them in, leading to both dilution of responsibility and collusive physician anonymity. The author recalls Eugene Stead’s famous comment: "What this patient needs is a Doctor."
Barbour considers several common functional disorders worth listing because they are frequently misrecognized and misrepresented: anxiety, depression, fatigue, weakness, obesity, anorexia, impotence or anhedonia, disturbed sleep, headache, backache, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, bloating, abdominal pain, musculoskeletal chest pain, and chronic pelvic pain. Although 87% of all emotionally based illnesses manifest as "medical" symptoms, functional symptoms are evaluated for organic disease as though the opposite were true.
Emotional expressions are inherently physical: they have evolved to unify mind and body in a common purpose, and great overlap can be seen between functional and organic expression. In organic disease, biologic determinants predominate; however, long-term psychosocial aspects of human life are the factors which actually determine morbidity and mortality. Indeed, much disease results from attempts to control the forces which initially led to illness. Thus, for example, endocarditis may result from intravenously administered drugs used to feel better by someone who feels profoundly bad. That is the core problem. Barbour quotes Stead’s comment: "If one doesn’t know what is actually going on, then one doesn’t really know how to handle it."
Commonly, each possible organic disease is ruled out before the physician considers functional disorder as the diagnosis. This practice is improper and destructive: both varieties of diagnosis should be considered from the outset. Psychosomatic disorders can be detected only as a result of positive diagnosis and not by default. Personal situations which correlate with increased morbidity and mortality from physical disease include degree of parental deprivation, quality of childhood experience, and quality of social support. The author references a 7000 person study in which middle-aged men with the fewest interpersonal connections had three times the mortality rate of a matching group with the most interpersonal connections.
Feelings are either expressed or suppressed; they cannot be obliterated through containment. If suppressed, they emerge either as physical symptoms or as unfocused emotional expression such as anxiety, depression, or other psychiatric syndromes. Because most emotionally distressed persons are only dimly aware of the source of their distress or are overwhelmed by it, their tension mounts until physical symptoms result or until anxiety or depression increase to a level triggering a psychiatric diagnosis. Indeed, unconscious suppression of emotions and failure to understand their link to symptoms is the rule in medicine: by focusing on symptoms instead of their underlying personal problems, people define themselves as sick and thus seek relief from doctors. Complaints about symptoms trigger the medical model.
In general, pain is usually and incorrectly thought to be primarily caused by organic disease. Barbour studied 400 consecutive Stanford University Medica
HOSA logo – Arizona HOSA —— The Introduction of Health Occupations Students of America (HOSA) into Arizona Secondary and Post-Secondary Education
The problem was huge. How could Arizona get the proper medical infrastructure in place and more importantly, the properly trained people to live and work in half of the Arizona counties that had fewer than eleven residents per square mile (1) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)? This is the type of question that faced all of the stakeholders trying to improve the quality of Arizona health care at the turn of this century. Near the top of this stakeholder list were the hospitals and health care centers serving Arizona. Most of these institutions were members of an advocacy organization called the Arizona Hospital and Healthcare Association (AzHHA). This Phoenix based company represented its member’s interests primarily on legislative issues at both the state and the national levels (Arizona Hospital and Healthcare Association, 2011). AzHHA members were facing mounting costs, just to maintain their inadequate geographic range of health care coverage, let alone expand into counties that had frontier designations because of their meager populations or their inaccessibility (Alexander, 2005).
These health care deficiencies were mirrored in magnitude by Arizona’s problems in secondary public school education (2). The 2001 high school dropout rate was 8% for White students and 5% for Asian American students. The Indigenous American students, however, left high school at a 13% pace while 16% of Hispanic and African American students did not complete their secondary school education (Alexander, 2005). Hispanics, making up the largest minority group in the state, had grown their population by 19% in the 1980s and by 25% through the 1990s (Alexander, 2005). The high dropout population of these minority students was obviously not going to disappear through a decline in their numbers.
Along with these poor secondary school statistics, inadequate minority participation in post-secondary education was also evident by these census data. While a quarter of Arizona’s population was Hispanic in 2000, only 4% of Arizona’s nurses were Hispanic and with Indigenous Americans accounting for 5% of Arizona’s population, only 1% of nurses came from this minority group (Alexander, 2005). This was particularly problematic since it was known that a high percentage of these minorities inhabit the medically underserved areas of Arizona (Alexander, 2005). And, it was understood that there would be a higher probability of attracting Hispanic and Indigenous American nurse graduates to return to their childhood homes than to attract White or Asian nurse graduates to these areas (3).
AzHHA, representing the concerns of its hospital clients and the Arizona Department of Education (ADE), representing the interests of its Arizona students were not unaware of the needs of the other. AzHHA had initiated a project known as the Campaign for Caring (CFC) in 2002 with its goal of attracting and supporting more qualified and increasingly dedicated nurses and healthcare professional in Arizona (Alexander, 2005). The governing body of the CFC consisted of 35 healthcare professionals from hospitals across the state (Alexander, 2005). The preponderance of CFC focus was on methods and research to attract more youth and adults into healthcare professions along with methods to finance and sustain these undertakings (Alexander, 2005). In response to this stated goal, CFC proposed and initiated a plan in collaboration with the ADE to conduct seven different projects for the promotion of health care occupations among Arizona students. They were funded by $4.25 million in donations from AzHHA clients as well as a three year Health Resources and Services Administration Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant or HRSA grant as it was commonly known (Alexander, 2005).
These seven projects were administered by the private company AzHHA. The Arizona Department of Education did not participate substantially in the management of these projects (Alexander, 2005).
These highly detailed HRSA grant tasks included the following projects:
1.Nurse Story Telling Project aimed at providing accurate images of nurses to children in grades K through 3